Deaf at age 2 from meningitis; graduated the Illinois Institution for the deaf in 1882. Worked on his father's farm for a few years, then worked as a printer in St. Louis, MO for 13 years before losing that job through the introduction of typesetting machines. After several years of odd jobs, became a mattress maker in the upholstery department of the Pullman Car Shops. Married Mary Armstrong in 1891.
Representative Deaf Persons [second edition], p.146.